Do colours have an impact on sports performance?

It is a widely held belief that different colours denote different feelings – for example, the colour blue is associated with calm whilst red can be associated with passion or aggression. Colour phycology is a widely researched subject, but just how far does colour association extend? Does a man wearing a green t-shirt appear less confident than a man in a black and white suit? Does a woman wearing a yellow dress appear happier than a woman wearing a black dress?

It is widely accepted that different colours can affect our mood. Let’s take an extension from that — if colour can affect us mentally, can it affect us physically? If our moods are heightened or dampened based on colours, it would make sense that colours could be used as a means to amplify performance in athletics.

Blue is often associated with calm, yellow is typically associated with happiness, and black has connotations of death in many cultures. It has been cited by numerous sources that teams wearing a red sports kit are more successful. But is this always the case? Let’s analyse the colours of different running clubs. The main purpose of club colours is, at base, to identify runners on the track. For example, the Edinburgh University Hare & Hounds Running Club wear green, whereas the Glasgow University club colours are black and gold.

Let’s take a look at some sports where colour has been linked to increased performance. Hill and Barton conducted a study regarding combat sports, and concluded that red had a higher success rate than blue due to red apparently sending a message of aggression and dominance to the opponent. But another study of Judo athletes showed blue contestants had a higher victory rate than those wearing white. According to researchers, the study was not wholly controlled — the blue-kit wearing contestants were seeded as the top 11%. Due to this, even in the loser’s pool, the athletes in blue had competed in one less match, and had had longer rest periods. Another study corrected these variables, and found uniform colour had little impact on success.

So, if colour and sporting success aren’t related at all, do colours make a difference? Minnpost dug a little deeper into the matter, and found an alternative view on the issue from psychologist Tom Stafford. He suggested that the colour of kit didn’t impact the athletes as much as they impacted the referee — and he used studies of digital colour manipulation to support this theory, in which referees were shown images with the colours worn by contestants altered. The referees awarded more points to those photoshopped in red kit than in blue. Could it be that the colour of sportswear has more of an effect on the people watching than the athletes themselves then?

The audience at a sports game are usually looking for entertainment, so this is a valid point. Perhaps the choice of colour in sportswear is less to do with trying to increase the chance of winning, or putting off the opponent, but instead generating a sense of excitement and energy in the crowd watching.

That’s not to say that colour psychology has no place in sports. But instead of looking at what we wear when we go for a run or perform sports, perhaps we should be considering our surroundings instead. Swiss running website On suggests that the real power of colour psychology in athletics comes from the colours of a runner’s surroundings. The example posed is that running in a grey room may be uninspiring and clinical, whereas running in a colourful room might perk the athlete up more. This theory could also be applied to outdoor running vs indoor running – for example, running under a clear blue sky on the green grass would probably be a much happier experience than running indoors on a treadmill. The sight of these colours could make for a happier athlete who, in turn, may perform better.

We can certainly apply colour psychology to sports. But if a team or athlete wins where another doesn’t, it’s unlikely because he or she chose to wear a red shirt.